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Title
  • Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases
Creator

Kubo, Yoshinao

Hayashi, Hideki

Matsuyama, Toshifumi

Sato, Hironori

Yamamoto, Naoki

Rights
    • © 2012 Yoshinao Kubo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description
Other
  • Retroviruses include infectious agents inducing severe diseases in humans and animals. In addition, retroviruses are widely used as tools to transfer genes of interest to target cells. Understanding the entry mechanism of retroviruses contributes to developments of novel therapeutic approaches against retrovirus-induced diseases and efficient exploitation of retroviral vectors. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cell cytoplasm is achieved by fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes at either the cell surface or intracellular vesicles. Many animal retroviruses enter host cells through endosomes and require endosome acidification. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus entry requires cathepsin proteases activated by the endosome acidification. CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is thought to occur via endosomes, but endosome acidification is not necessary for the entry whereas entry of CD4-independent HIVs, which are thought to be prototypes of CD4-dependent viruses, is low pH dependent. There are several controversial results on the retroviral entry pathways. Because endocytosis and endosome acidification are complicatedly controlled by cellular mechanisms, the retrovirus entry pathways may be different in different cell lines.
Other
  • identifier:Advances in Virology, 2012, pp.1-14; 2012
Other
  • identifier:16878647
PublisherHindawi Publishing Corporation
Date Issued 2012
Languageeng
NIItypejournal article
VersiontypeVoR
Identifier URI http://hdl.handle.net/10069/31562
Relation
  • isIdenticalTo DOI https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/640894
Journal
    • ISSN 1687-8639
    • Advances in Virology
    2012, 1-14
File
Oaidate2013-04-30T14:15:25Z